18 juillet 2010

We more typicaUy remember Lincoln's speeches for their eloquence

We more typicaUy remember Lincoln's speeches for their eloquence. Tiffany Knots ring of this, as I have suggested, is achieved through his intuitive feel for appropriate diction and rhythmic emphasis, manifested, most famously, in every phrase of the Gettysburg Address, as in the grand concluding sweep of "we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain," moving on to the cUmactic anaphora, "that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shaU not perish from the earth." Only a single phrase in the Address is expUcidy bibUcal, though one might argue that the very use of a language that is both plain and dignified, resonant in its very ordinariness, is in part inspired by the diction of the King James Version. Many people, I suspect, assume that the opening phrase, "Four score and seven years ago," is explicitly biblical, though in fact it is merely modeled on the "three score and ten" of the King James Version, a phrase that, given the sacred status of the formulaic number seventy, appears in times in the 1611 translation. The Hebrew actually has no equivalent expression and simply says "seventy," as does Tyndale's translation, which was a principal source for the King James translators. Their decision to use this compound form would seem to reflect a desire to give their version a heightened and deliberately archaic flourish (it seems unlikely that this is the way ordinary Englishmen said "seventy" in the seventeenth century), and Lincoln clearly Return to Tiffany Heart tag necklace to this aim in adopting the form. The difference between "eighty-seven" and "four score and seven" is that the former is a mere numerical indication whereas the latter gives the passage of time since the founding of the Republic weight and solemnity. This effect in part is a consequence of breaking the number into two pieces, forcing us to slow down as we take it in and compute it. But it also has something to do with the archaic character of the phrase, and in this regard the background of the King James Version has a direct relevance. The 1611 translation, as has often been observed, was in general a little archaic even in its own time. By the middle decades of the nineteenth century, much of its language was surely felt to be archaic (and even then, perhaps not always perfectly understood), and yet the text was, paradoxically, part of everyday Ufe, a familiar fixture of hearth and home. In this way, the sheer dissemination of the King James Version created a stylistic precedent for the American ear in which a language that was Return to Tiffany old-fashioned, that stood at a distance from contemporary usage, was assumed to be the vehicle for expressing matters of high import and grand spiritual scope. Thus, "four score seven years ago," a biblicizing phrase that is not an actual quotation, sounds a strong note of biblical authority at the beginning of the Gettysburg Address.


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American Literary Style and the Presence of the King James Bible

As I assemble these reflections on the presence of the King James Version in American writing, the Return to Tiffany Heart tag ring centennial of the 1611 translation stands on the horizon. A great deal has changed in American culture since the third centennial was celebrated in 1911. At that juncture, the King James Version was extolled by leading public figures such as Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson as America's national book and as the text that more than any other had affected the life of English speaking peoples. My guess is that the 2011 milestone will be marked more in academic circles than in the public domain. In the century since the previous centennial was celebrated, two major shifts have taken place: the practice of reading the Bible aloud, of reading the Bible at all, and of memorizing passages from the Bible has drastically and the King James Bible has ceased to be the almost universally used translation as readers have been encouraged to use more "accessible" versions, which also happen to be stylistically inferior in virtually all respects.

The decline of the role of the King James Version in American culture has taken place more or less simultaneously with a general erosion of a sense of literary language, although I am not suggesting a causal link. The reasons for this latter development have often been noted, and hence the briefest summary will suffice for the purpose of the present argument: Americans read less, and read with less comprehension; hours once devoted to books from childhood on are more likely to be spent in front of a television set or a computer screen; epistolary English, once a proving ground for style, has been widely displaced by the high-speed shortcut language of e-mail and text-messaging. The disappearance of a Paloma Picasso Double Loving Heart ring of style even makes itself felt in popular book reviewing. Most contemporary reviewers clearly have no tools to discuss style, or much interest in doing so. One unsettling symptom of the general problem is that in the country's most influential reviewing platform, the New York Times Book Review, when a critic singles out a writer for stylistic brilliance, it is far more often than not the case that the proffered illustrative quotation turns out to be either flat and banal writing or prose of the most purple hue. Obviously, there are stiU people in the culture, including young people, who have a rich and subde sense of language, but they are an embattled minority in a society where tone deafness to style is increasingly prevalent. That tone deafness has also affected the academic study of Uterature, but there are other issues involved in the university setting, and to those I shaU turn in due course.

In sharp contrast to our current condition, American culture in the mid-nineteenth century, where my considerations of the bibUcal strand in the novel begin, cultivated the adept use of language in a variety of ways. The reUsh for language was by no means restricted to high culture: the vigor and wit of die American Tiffany Somerset ring were prized quaUties that were widely exercised, and one can see their Uterary transmutation in the prose of Mark Twain and the poetry of Walt Whitman and Emily Dickinson. The thorough familiarity in this period with the strong and eloquent language of the King James Bible provided an important resource, beyond the vital inventiveness of spoken American English, that nourished the general sense of style.


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The Technician and the Clown

The Analects offers two particularly instructive models of moral learners struggling to navigate this Elsa Peretti Eternal Circle cufflinks: Confucius' students Zigong and Zilu. Zigong and Zilu are both presented as moral learners; neither may be said to be a sage. Among the text's depictions of Confucius' students, its representations of Zigong and Zilu are among the more vivid, and the men provide, in many respects, a study in contrasts. Zigong is exceptionally proficient in the mechanics of ritual performance, well able to conform to convention's apparent dictates. He may be relied upon to aim at what, in summary description, is appropriate. Yet his attention to form appears to Return to Tiffany heart tag Charm bracelet with the sensitivity to context necessary to secure well-styled moral performance. Zilu, unlike his peer, is erratic in his performance of ritual. He sometimes misjudges what is appropriate, and even where he avoids obvious missteps, his actions are likely to display his distinctively brash and incautious temperament. Zilu may be relied upon to exhibit uncommon courage, but he lacks the discipline that would reliably produce virtuous performances. Confucius' counsel to these students is clearly influenced by his reading of their characters: he urges Zigong away from the programmatic application of ritual and Zilu toward greater caution. Given the repetition of the counsel directed to Zigong and Zilu, we Heart tag charm Toggle bracelet well infer that both in some measure have failed to heed Confucius' advice. However, while both Zigong and Zilu fall short, there are indications that Zilu, despite his rather pronounced shortcomings, is nearer the mark. Taking measure of these two models may profit our understanding of conventional style and moral learning.



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The Case for Improvement

Once we appreciate the competing demands that face a mature moral learner, it may be Tiffany Notes band ring to discount the need to cultivate a morally worthy style, and so it is important to assess briefly just what is at stake here. Why should style command attention as an important domain that deserves some measure of our finite energies? While a poorly styled demeanor may not produce the best display of virtue, is there anything wrong with it? If one's actions and dispositions are proper for the circumstances in which they are situated, does a failure in style constitute an ethical failure? I believe that Confucius would claim that it does, that in some measure appearing inappropriate is inappropriate and that we have some burden to avoid the semblance of impropriety.16

Confucius' most explicit treatment of the intersection of substance and style occurs in Analects 2.8, where Confucius claims that filiality requires managing the face. Confucius, it seems clear, targets the dispositions as a necessary element of self-cultivation. Children who serve their parents without the attitudinal and emotive dispositions that inform the virtue of filiality cannot properly be called filial. Yet while the dispositions must be cultivated, it is the appearance in one's countenance that Confucius here emphasizes. It matters to Confucius that parents know their children to be willing performers of filial actions, and this is known through the demeanor, the ''look and feel'' of what children do. Moreover, where we consider the foundation and aims of Confucius' broader ethical vision, it seems clear that we have some obligation to notify others of the propriety of our dispositional states, to give them reasons to recognize our actions as Tiffany 1837 Lock bracelet.

The appearance of virtue is particularly important where one of the aims of virtue is the fostering and preservation of robust moral communities. As Julia Driver observes, an otherwise moral action that bears a resemblance to the immoral is easily prey to misconstrual by others for whom one's actions may operate as a model. My appearing less than virtuous may encourage others to be less than virtuous or, more subtly, may reduce the ''pressure'' in the community to be virtuous.17 Where we adopt providing a good example as one of our moral responsibilities- and Confucius does see this as a responsibility-we must take care to avoid the appearance of impropriety. More immediately, quite apart from where we may lead others is a concern with where inappropriate style may lead us. Confucius privileges roles and relationships in the formation of personal identity and consequently assigns significant emphasis to conducting oneself in ways that promote robust and thriving relationships, Elsa Peretti Teardrop ring with one's family and intimates. Losing the good opinion of relevant others thus matters more here than it would in a more individualistic account of the person. There is far less consolation available for a stubbornly purist or private self-satisfaction in knowing myself to be good while others mistak- enly believe me to be bad.18 While such an outcome is perhaps sometimes unavoidable, I have an interest in avoiding it where I can. Where I fail to promote flourishing relations or, more severely, prompt alienation from others, my own potential for realizing myself within the community is damaged. To return to my example, where poorly expressed gratitude is taken as sullenness, those who extend their affection through gifts will find less incentive to extend themselves, in this or other ways, and the landscape of the relation and who we can become within it is altered for the worse. Indeed, we may even say that the world has altered for the worse.



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One distinctive feature of Confucius' moral reasoning is his concern about the appropriate Tiffany 1837 cuff of moral actions. In its most general formulation, this amounts to a concern not only about what is done, but about how it is done.1 Indeed, for Confucius, it appears that judgments about the correctness of an action must wed attention to the gross dimensions of the act with sensitivity to subtler aspects of its performance- what I call the action's ''style.'' As Confucius describes it, virtue demands that one match demeanor to the ostensible meaning of one's act, crafting the tonal elements of one's performance-elements that can range from posture to voice to facial expression-to convey an accord between one's behavior and one's disposition. Confucius advocates, in short, a species of virtue that demands not only appropriate action, but that actions exhibit a fitting ''look and feel.''2 In what follows, I wish to take Confucius' commitment to style as a given and consider, from the posture of the moral learner, what is required where one takes developing style as an element in moral cultivation. I wish to suggest that while the conventions that constitute the li, or rites, are the most obvious strategy Confucius offers for developing appropriate style, Confucius' students-the moral learners depicted in the Analects -offer models that significantly undermine the apparent simplicity and economy of this strategy. The rites guide but cannot govern, and this stems from the function of style as Confucius conceives it.

The manner in which we perform actions-moral or nonmoral-is closely connected to the attitudes and emotions we bring to these actions. While we need not go so far as to identify style with testimony to attitudinal and emotive dispositions,3 how we feel about what we do will importantly shape the grace, or lack thereof, with which we perform. Thus a concern with the style of actions seems to necessitate an assiduous management of these dispositions. A key task for the moral learner, then, is to Somerset basic hoop earrings her emotions and attitudes, to cultivate patterns of thinking that will promote appropriate dispositions and do so in the context of whatever temperamental or circumstantial obstacles present themselves. Confucius, it is clear, believes that we can so shape ourselves and offers a number of strategies for doing so.

While achieving appropriate dispositions presumably goes a long way toward achieving well-styled moral actions, these alone cannot account for those actions we would judge most successful. The best, or optimally styled, moral actions meet two additional conditions: the performer is effective at conveying her dispositions in the medium of her demeanor, and her demeanor is received by relevant witnesses as appropriate and well styled. An action may well arise from perfectly fitting ''feelings'' about what is done and yet utterly fail in its styling and thus appear ill fitting or even wrong. Perhaps an anecdotal example will illustrate. My four-year-old daughter is possessed of a rather quiet temperament. One of the more socially peculiar manifestations of this is her manner of receiving gifts. When she receives a gift that she likes, she becomes utterly still, solemn, and grave. Indeed, the more she likes the gift, the more pronounced is this reaction. Because of this, we might say that she is a poor performer of Toggle bracelet gratitude. She feels gratitude, will murmur ''thank you,'' but she will appear glum, bereft of the more typical markers of joy we generally take to indicate sincere appreciation. While those who know her may recognize her response as a rather idiosyncratic display of gratitude, a less familiar observer is more likely to suspect want of appreciation or even sullen ingratitude. In short, one may perform an appropriate action with an appropriate disposition, and yet, where style is wanting, the response may appear inappropriate.4




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Consistency in grading practices and interpretation and application of Tiffany Somerset Bangle style was identified as the area needing the most improvement. Several participants commented that students frequently reported that they receive conflicting advice and feedback. Students are often provided information that is no longer accurate or may consist of a faculty member's expectation of a specific style that is not consistent with APA style. This may result in a lower grade in an upcoming course if faculty grade papers using different standards.

The inconsistency reported here may be a result of the expectation placed on faculty to learn APA style on their own. As shown in this study, 77% reported that they learned APA style on their own, with the majority having noted their first exposure to APA style was with prior versions. With the workload and other teaching responsibilities, faculty simply may not have time to read and stay current with newer editions.

Maintaining currency is necessary when faculty review academic papers. Written papers are a common form of assessment in nursing education. Assessment provides students with feedback aimed at improvement and also provides information for the institution to monitor and improve student performance. Evaluation of written papers is time consuming. Several respondents noted that a significant part of the grading process was devoted to evaluation of APA style. In addition, faculty reported that there was inconsistency in evaluation practices with some weighting infractions of APA style heavy and others weighing the same errors minimally. To improve evaluation practices and encourage Tiffany 1837 ring, faculty may benefit by use of scoring rubrics throughout the curriculum.

Scoring rubrics are versatile tools for simplifying the review by clearly specifying assessment criteria. Faculty can use the rubric to communicate expectations, provide formative feedback, and grade students. Rubrics can clarify faculty expectations regarding written work and empower students to improve their writing abilities (Ramey, VandeVusse, & Gosline, 2007).

There are two major types of rubrics. A holistic rubric requires the evaluator to score the overall paper as one global, holistic rating, and an analytic rubric is used to make separate ratings of specified characteristics (Kan, 2007). Mertler (2001) provides sample templates and an excellent discussion distinguishing holistic and analytic rubrics that may be of benefit.

However, most important is that development of the rubric include criterion that Tiffany Keys Crown key pendant required elements of APA style. An analytic example that demonstrates this is included in Table 7. Finally, several faculty recommended collaborative peer evaluation of written assignments in an informal manner as a strategy to develop and improve their assessment of written papers.



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Format, Writing Style, and Grammar

Participants were asked to share potential solutions for successful application of APA style. Elsa Peretti Starfish earrings-one percent of the participants responded. Of these, 21% of the comments were from the Community College group, 20% from the baccalaureate group, 18% from the baccalaureate and master's group, and 12% from the baccalaureate, master's, and doctoral group. This response rate group percentage is comparable with the breakdown of the entire sample by academic affiliation (Table 1). The participants provided a broad range of comments that resulted in identification of the four categories: consistency (39%), education (29%), resources (24%), and dialogue (8%).

Consistency. The consistency theme was the most prevalent of all comments. This included consistency regarding feedback, requirements, grading, and expectations throughout all aspects of the curriculum. Most participants seemed to identify that faculty need to be better versed in APA style: "Consistent [sic] CORRECT usage of APA by faculty and accurate feedback to students." In addition, consistency with grading was frequently noted, with several participants having reported that there are wide differences on evaluation strategies, ranging from few deductions for errors to major deductions for minor errors.

Education. Providing education was frequently reported as a potential solution to successful application of APA style. The participants noted that faculty needed "better understanding" and to maintain currency with each new edition of the manual. Tiffany Signature ring included in-service and mandatory workshops for both faculty and students. Several suggested an orientation for new faculty and that a frequent or annual review for students and faculty would be of benefit.

Resources. Many resources were suggested by the participants, including three primary suggestions. First, faculty and students should purchase the most recent edition of the Publication Manual. Second, guidelines and handouts that specify department or campus requirements should be provided. Third, participants recommended use of tutors and tutorials for students. Several participants also posited that a required tutorial would also be beneficial in plagiarism prevention: "Creation of an online tutorial that is interactive and has examples of paraphrasing will help prevent plagiarism." One participant reported that "use of a big brother or big sister" had been helpful in their school.

Dialogue. Educators that participated in this research agreed that increased communication among faculty is needed. One participant noted "a consensus of importance" as essential, and other participants identified the need for faculty to come together and discuss concerns and to strategize approaches for Tiffany Circle clasp necklace of APA style as a "faculty group." There were several comments about administration support, stating there needed to be more direction from administration and discussion at faculty meetings. Co-grading papers and peer review as a springboard for discussion was also recommended. Many comments suggested that APA style be taught in English courses and used consistently across the campus. One participant stated: "I believe that nursing needs to work more closely with the English department to reinforce and support use of APA style." Several reported that the English departments at their respective schools used MLA style and that nursing should require a technical writing course instead of a creative writing course.



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Departmental and Personal Concerns

Using a Likert scale ranging from 1 (not important) to 5 (very important), participants were asked to rate their Tiffany Cushion Hoop earrings and personal concerns of APA style as an issue. Of the participants, 60% reported this issue as moderately important to very important for their department (mean = 2.91, SD = 1.19), and 67% rated this as a moderate to very important personal concern (mean = 3.20, SD = 1.28). Using a similar Likert scale, participants were also asked to rate grading and feedback consistency among their faculty colleagues and to note their comfort level in advising colleagues who may have misadvised a student in APA style. Fifty-five percent rated their faculty colleagues as somewhat inconsistent to moderately inconsistent in APA style grading and feedback (mean = 2.43, SD = 1.07). However, 63% reported feeling moderately comfortable in counseling a colleague who may have misadvised a student in APA style (mean = 3.05, SD = 1.28).

Additional analysis was conducted to determine differences by academic affiliation. As shown in Table 2, APA style as a departmental concern was rated moderately important by all groups except for the community college group, with 63% having rated this as not important to somewhat important. In contrast, all groups noted that APA style is of moderate importance as a personal concern. All groups reported that their faculty colleagues are somewhat inconsistent to Elsa Peretti Open Heart charm consistent in APA style grading and feedback. However, they are comfortable in counseling a colleague who may have misadvised a student, except for the community college group, with 42% having noted they are uncomfortable to somewhat uncomfortable.

Faculty Grading Practices

When asked what percentage of weight is assigned to academic papers, overall the participants reported an average of 10.8% (SD = 12.5%) on undergraduate papers and 12.3% (SD = 14.8%) on graduate papers. This trend is similar regarding estimated percentage of the comments provided on academic Elsa Peretti Starfish necklace. Participants noted a higher amount for undergraduate (22.1%, SD = 25%) compared with graduate (10.7%, SD = 18.3%) papers. Analysis by academic affiliation, as displayed in Table 3, found results were comparable, except for the percentage of comments reported by the two groups with graduate programs. These participants estimated that 17% of their comments are related to APA style.

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The literature is abundant with articles supporting the importance of students' Tiffany Notes cuff of academic writing skills across disciplines. Most articles focus on the pedagogical movement of 20 years ago, called Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC), which began in response to the general consensus that writing instruction should be conducted across the academic community (National Commission on Writing in America's Schools and Colleges, 2003; National Writing Project & Nagin, 2006). A search for literature aimed at application of APA style and academic writing revealed a limited number of studies that focus mostly on interventions aimed at improving writing and understanding of APA style. For example, two articles presented unique methods to improve APA style for psychology students. In the first article, Goddard (2003) reported significant improvement on grammar and APA style assessments for students who completed a 3-credit course designed to improve their writing skills. In the second article, Smith and Eggleston (2001) similarly reported positive perceptions and improvement in knowledge of APA style following participation in a teaching activity designed to enhance students' understanding of the Publication Manual and style by reading a poorly written paper and identifying as many style errors as possible.

In nursing, Hanson Diehl (2007) reported that in 5 years of data collection from graduate students, fears about writing include being unfamiliar with nursing literature, struggling with what to say and "putting a paper" together using APA format (p. 202). The author noted that students' writing agility and faculty satisfaction were improved following implementation of an Paloma Picasso Loving Heart earrings writing intervention that dedicated three classes in the beginning graduate course.

To mentor minority and disadvantaged undergraduate nursing students' technical writing skills, Johnson, Symes, Bernard, Landson, and Carroll (2007) tested a technical writing workshop developed by an interprofessional team of nursing and technical writing faculty in the Consortium for Advancing Nursing Diversity and Opportunities (CANDO). The workshop included an activity to help students differentiate between Modern Language Association (MLA) style, commonly taught in freshman composition courses, and APA style. The evaluation of the workshop was favorable with faculty strongly "in favor of continuing the writing skills tutorials" (Johnson et al., 2007, p. 171).

In addition to intervention studies that included an APA style Tiffany Metropolis Cuff links, several authors wrote brief articles providing quick APA style tips (Cuddy, 2002; Damrosch & Damrosch, 1996; McGuire, Gerber, & Currin, 2001). However, the literature review did not reveal any research aimed at evaluation of faculty application of APA style.



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Faculty Application of the American Psychological Association Style

The standard editorial style guide used in nursing education and professional journals is the Publication Bead bracelet issued by the American Psychological Association (APA). Commonly referred to as APA style, this format was first published in 1929 as a guide for manuscript preparation for psychological and anthropological journals (APA, 2001). Over time, APA style has been adopted by nursing schools as a standard guide in the preparation of academic papers. The manual is difficult to interpret, and students and faculty struggle with mastery of the appropriate writing style guidelines specified in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

As undergraduate and graduate nursing students attempt to master APA style, they turn to faculty for their expertise and guidance. Expectations abound that nursing faculty are well versed in APA style because they evaluate student papers. Faculty are also expected to Tiffany 1837 Ring mastery of APA style on their own accord, and anecdotal evidence from faculty colleagues notes that confusion is prevalent as new versions of the Publication Manual are introduced. Even the authors of the Publication Manual (2001) noted that the manual is not static and encouraged readers to frequently visit the APA Web site for updates and changes in policy and procedures. For example, in June 2007, APA issued the APA Style Guide to Electronic References (APA, 2007), which replaces the electronic reference section of the 2001 Publication Manual. This document summarizes a number of dramatic changes and is available only by electronic download from the APA Web site.

Besides frequent changes to the manual, the interpretation of APA style seems to be an ongoing topic that surfaces frequently as one of concern for faculty. Specifically, students' inability to write scholarly papers using APA format has been voiced (Hanson Diehl, 2007). In my experience, faculty discourse abounds with concerns about Return to Tiffany Heart tag pendant and application of APA style, with faculty frequently complaining that they "spend way too much time on APA." Although this concern persists, no study has been conducted about faculty application and evaluation of APA style. Thus, this study examined current faculty methods. Specific aims were to determine departmental and personal concerns of APA style issues; review faculty grading practices; evaluate concerns regarding format, writing style, and grammar; identify institutional resources for faculty and students; and report potential solutions for improving application of APA style.

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